Breast cancer is a common cancer among women. The success of treatment and the patient’s life expectancy depends on timely detection of the disease. The symptoms, stages of development, methods of diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer are told further.
Breasts consist of lobes, or glands, channels for transferring milk to nipples, fat, connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels.
Breast cancer is a lesion of the breast by malignancies that replace glandular tissue. Most often, carcinoma is detected, developing in slices or punctures, but in addition to it there are about 20 other varieties of malignant formations of the breast.
Cancer cells have an abnormal structure and high rate of division due to the rapid metabolism in them. Appearing in the tissues of the breast, they, as the disease develops, penetrate into the nearby lymph nodes, and in the later stages affect distant tissues, including bones and internal organs.
In addition, the life cycle of malignant cells is shorter than healthy cells, and their disintegration causes general intoxication of the body.
The main cause of breast cancer doctors see in hormonal changes. More often, the disease develops in women in the menopause,when the production of hormones changes dramatically. Progesterone and estrogen are produced less, which affects the condition of the breasts.
Unfavorable is not only a deficiency, but also an excess of female sex hormones, for example, the risk of breast cancer increased in unborn women after 30 years and as a result of abortion. Pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding, on the other hand, significantly reduce the likelihood of malignant cells in the breast.
BREAST CANCER STAGES, SYMPTOMS
The international classification of breast cancer stages identifies four stages of the disease.
The pathological hearth does not exceed 2 cm in diameter, and the cancer has not yet affected neighboring tissues and lymph nodes. Metastases are absent, breast fat and skin are not affected.
When palpation is groped painless small-sized seal – this is the only sign of breast cancer at an early stage.
The tumor reaches from 2 to 5 cm, in the adjacent tissues does not germ. The second stage is divided into two categories:
The growth increases in size is the penetration of cancer cells into the axillary lymph nodes.
Symptoms of breast cancer in stage 2 are the wrinkle of areas of the breast and reduced elasticity of the skin over the tumor. After squeezing the skin in this place wrinkles do not straighten for a long time.
No more than two metastases can be detected in the affected gland, and often there is a symptom of umbilical disease – the pulling of the nipple or skin at the location of the tumor.
The diameter of the tumor exceeds 5 cm, it can affect the subcutaneous fat layer and derma. Symptoms of stage 3 breast cancer: the skin resembles a lemon peel, it is pulled over the tumor, often swelling, if there are metastases, then no more than two.